THE WHO - QUADROPHENIA track 2644 001 2 LP 1973 FRA

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Venditore: Top-Rated Seller endrucomics (8.300) 100%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Bologna, Spedizione verso: Worldwide, Numero oggetto: 270385495547 PREMESSA: LA SUPERIORITA' DELLA MUSICA SU VINILE E' ANCOR OGGI SANCITA, NOTORIA ED EVIDENTE. NON TANTO DA UN PUNTO DI VISTA DI RESA, QUALITA' E PULIZIA DEL SUONO, TANTOMENO DA QUELLO DEL RIMPIANTO RETROSPETTIVO E NOSTALGICO , MA SOPRATTUTTO DA QUELLO PIU' PALPABILE ED INOPPUGNABILE DELL' ESSENZA, DELL' ANIMA E DELLA SUBLIMAZIONE CREATIVA. IL DISCO IN VINILE HA PULSAZIONE ARTISTICA, PASSIONE ARMONICA E SPLENDORE GRAFICO , E' PIACEVOLE DA OSSERVARE E DA TENERE IN MANO, RISPLENDE, PROFUMA E VIBRA DI VITA, DI EMOZIONE E DI SENSIBILITA'. E' TUTTO QUELLO CHE NON E' E NON POTRA' MAI ESSERE IL CD, CHE AL CONTRARIO E' SOLO UN OGGETTO MERAMENTE COMMERCIALE, POVERO, ARIDO, CINICO, STERILE ED ORWELLIANO, UNA DEGENERAZIONE INDUSTRIALE SCHIZOFRENICA E NECROFILA, LA DESOLANTE SOLUZIONE FINALE DELL' AVIDITA' DEL MERCATO E DELL' ARROGANZA DEI DISCOGRAFICI . THE WHO quadrophenia Disco Doppio 2 LP 33 giri , track records , 2644 - 001 (249 203 , 249 204 ) , 1973 ,vinyls pressing: france , sleeve printing: holland ECCELLENTI CONDIZIONI, both vinyls ex++/NM , cover ex++/NM. INSERTO FOTOGRAFICO INTERNO DI 44 PAGINE (44 pages inner picture book included) Quadrophenia is the sixth album by the English rock band The Who. Released on 19 October 1973, Quadrophenia is a double album, and the group's second rock opera. Its story involves social, musical, and psychological happenings from an English teenage perspective, set in London and Brighton in 1964 and 1965. The name is a variation on the incorrect popular usage of the medical diagnostic term schizophrenia as multiple personality disorder to reflect the four distinct personalities of Jimmy, the opera's protagonist—each said to represent the personality of one member of The Who. The title also referenced the Quadraphonic sound schemes then being introduced. La copertina Jimmy nel paese dei mod Tra la fine del 1972 e l’inizio del 1973, Pete Townshend inizia a sviluppare l’idea per un brano di circa venti minuti chiamato "Rock Is Dead-Long Live Rock". La lunga suite, tuttavia, allarga le sue maglie sonore fino a diventare un nuovo disco doppio e una nuova opera rock. Townshend scrive, così, un’altra sofisticata storia in musica sulla Londra delle band giovanili di metà anni 60. Le prime esperienze degli Who-High Numbers vengono rivissute attraverso le disavventure del mod Jimmy, alla ricerca di amore e amicizia in una città fondamentalmente ostile, nel doloroso cammino verso la maturità. Gli elementi sono quelli classici del mondo mod: le scorrazzate in Vespa, gli amori fugaci, le scazzottate, le overdose di pastiglie. E’ lo stesso Pete che, in un’intervista, ammette: "Voglio ritrovare i nostri primi fan, ma anche rendere il senso di ciò che è accaduto al rock e alla generazione che è cresciuta insieme a noi". La sofferenza di Jimmy in una società contorta e priva di sensibilità viene, così, raccontata nelle diciassette nuove canzoni di Quadrophenia (Track, 1973), che esce a novembre dopo un’altra gestazione travagliata. Durante la registrazione negli studi di Battersea, infatti, vengono a galla i vecchi dissapori tra Pete e Roger soprattutto in fase di missaggio. L’idea di Townshend è di utilizzare una nuova tecnica quadrofonica, a quattro canali, che, tuttavia, si rivela inadeguata al disco. Il suono di Quadrophenia, infatti, è quantomai ricco e potente e tende notevolmente a coprire la voce del cantante. L’album fa ancora più leva sulla grande statura musicale della band e propone arrangiamenti decisamente più sofisticati, attraverso le tastiere orchestrali che, spesso e volentieri, arrivano a oscurare la stessa chitarra che tanto ha dato al loro sound. E’ lo stesso progressive del tempo che viene interpretato in maniera molto originale e personale rendendo, di fatto, Quadrophenia una versione ancora più sinfonica di Tommy. L’opera è ricca di fitti contrappunti e fraseggi melodici e si struttura su quattro temi principali (uno per ogni membro della band) che, in pratica, incarnano le quattro personalità della schizofrenia del protagonista. Il "duro" Roger guida l’incedere anfetaminico di piano e chitarra di "Helpless Dancer". Il "romantico" John tesse il melodrammatico marziale di "Doctor Jimmy". L’ovviamente "lunatico" Moon rende ebbra la paradossale "Bell Boy". "Love Reign O’er Me", tema dell’"ipocrita" Pete, invece, parte con un piano straziante, viene portato all’apice dalle tastiere e dalla voce di Daltrey, prima di spegnersi nel fragore tribale della batteria. Su questa impalcatura, Townshend ricama impetuose e commoventi partiture strumentali che trovano sfogo nelle overture "Quadrophenia" e "The Rock". L’album, tuttavia, è pur sempre una cartolina ricordo del furore iniziale di "My Generation" e gli Who non rinunciano al riff sparato e rabbioso. "The Real Me" introduce il mondo interiore di Jimmy con una splendida cavalcata hard-rock. "The Punk And The Godfather" balbetta nervosa su una struttura di tastiere, basso pulsante e chitarra sferragliante. "5:15", poi, travolge con un boogie per piano arricchito di corni in odore di rhythm and blues. Townshend inserisce qui e là rimandi al folk acustico (la splendida tristezza di "I’m One") e omaggia lo stesso sound-Who con il barrelhouse scatenato di "Drowned". E’ si vero che l’uso massiccio di tastiere elettroniche a volte smorza la genuinità di fondo della storia, ma Quadrophenia, alla fine, convince per piglio e coraggio ed è una nuova vittoria artistica per l’estro di Pete Townshend. Players Roger Daltrey - vocePete Townshend - chitarra, sintetizzatore, banjo, effetti sonori, voceJohn Entwistle - basso, corno, voceKeith Moon - batteria, percussioni, voce in Bell Boy Altri musicisti Chris Stainton - pianoforte in Dirty Jobs, Helpless Dancer, 5:15 e DrownedJohn Curle - voce giornalista Etichetta: Track Records Catalogo: deluxe double 2644 001 Matrici / Run-out groove etchings: TRC 2409 203 1 C D S / TRC 2409 203 2 C D S / TRC 2409 204 1 C D S / TRC 2409 204 2 C D S Supporto:vinile 33 giriTipo audio: stereoDimensioni: 30 cm.Facciate: 4 gatefold sleeve / copertina apribile, black-silver label, white paper original inner sleeves, contiene inserto fotografico b/n di 44 pagine con immagini del film / inside 44 pages b/w picture book TRACK LIST Disco 1 Lato A I am the Sea - 2:08The Real Me - 3:20Quadrophenia - 6:15Cut My Hair - 3:46The Punk and the Godfather - 5:10 Lato B I'm One - 2:39The Dirty Jobs - 4:30Helpless Dancer - 2:32Is It in My Head - 3:46I've Had Enough - 6:14 Disco 2 Lato A 5:15 - 5:00Sea and Sand - 5:01Drowned - 5:28Bell Boy - 4:56 Lato B Doctor Jimmy - 8:42The Rock - 6:37Love, Reign O'er Me - 5:48 The story covers about five days of the life of Jimmy Cooper, a participant in the circa 1964 Mod lifestyle in England, the son of simple working-class folk. "The story is set on a rock!" announced the composer, Pete Townshend, at one live performance, indicating that the opera represents Jimmy's looking back at the events of the previous day or two that led him into the gloomy situation where he finds himself at the end of the story. The narrative is difficult to derive from the lyrics alone, but becomes clearer with the benefit of a short story (also written by Townshend) related from Jimmy's first person perspective, that is included in the album's booklet. The first half of the opera consists of songs that allude to the frustrations and insecurities that govern Jimmy's life, including brief glimpses of his home life, his job, his psychoanalyst, and his unsuccessful attempts to have a social life. Jimmy feels idle and unsure of himself after a bank holiday weekend he spent at Brighton Beach some time before where he participated in a brawl between the Mod movement he belonged to and a group of "leather clad Rockers". Halfway through the opera he sings "I've Had Enough", finds himself kicked out of his home when his parents find his box of 'blues' (valium) and in a fit of depression, wrecks his prized scooter. Distraught and with nothing better to do, Jimmy takes a large dose of blues and takes a train ride to the coast ("5:15", the time when the train departs.) where he once felt truly alive and accepted. During his stay near the beach in Brighton, he encounters the former "Ace Face", the leader of a group of Mods, whom he admires greatly. However, "Ace Face" works as a bell boy at a nearby hotel. Ironically this is the very same hotel Ace Face had smashed the windows of two days before. This display of masculine bravado had earned him the admiration of many of his fellow Mods two days before during Jimmy's first stay in Brighton. Jimmy is disgusted to learn that the person he had admired as a Mod had "sold out". At this point Jimmy is inconsolable. Everybody from his parents to his girlfriend had disappointed him before, but he had never expected the Mod lifestyle to let him down. Drunk and depressed, he steals a small outboard-driven rowboat and takes it out to a barren rock protruding from the sea, where he endures a psychological crash. With his life's worries splayed out in front of him in detail he then faces the fact that his boat has drifted off, he's coming down from his high off pills and gin, and is now stranded on the rock as a storm rages around him. With nothing left to live for, he finds a spiritual redemption in pouring rain ("Love, Reign o'er Me"). Musical structure Each of Jimmy's four personalities is supposed to be associated with one of the four musicians in The Who. The liner notes illustrate this concept as follows (names added): A tough guy, a helpless dancer. (Roger Daltrey)A romantic, is it me for a moment? (John Entwistle)A bloody lunatic, I'll even carry your bags. (Keith Moon)A beggar, a hypocrite, love reign o'er me. (Pete Townshend) In addition to describing a personality/band member, the four descriptions refer to four musical themes that portray Jimmy's personalities in the opera: "Helpless Dancer", "Is It Me?", "Bell Boy", and "Love Reign O'er Me". The four themes (or "leitmotifs" as described by Townshend) are mixed together in both the title track (bridging "The Real Me" and "Cut My Hair"), and the penultimate track, "The Rock" (bridging "Doctor Jimmy" and "Love, Reign O'er Me"). The two pieces were the most musically complex pieces that Townshend ever wrote for The Who, combining all four themes into two six-minute instrumental medleys. The two pieces have neither a definite beginning or end, as they begin with a fade-in from the previous track, starting with the theme of "Bell Boy" (Moon's theme). This is followed by the themes of "Is It Me" (Entwistle's theme), "Helpless Dancer" (Daltrey's theme), and "Love, Reign O'er Me" (Townshend's theme). "Quadrophenia" fades into rain sound effects after the "Love Reign O'er Me" theme. "The Rock" however ends with a combination of the four different themes, using the "Bell Boy" theme as the chord sequence, the "Helpless Dancer" theme as the melody, the "Is It Me?" theme as a lead (played on guitar and synthesizer), and the keyboard part to "Love Reign O'er Me" as a countermelody. The whole song abruptly ends on a downbeat layered with the sound of thunder and descends into "Love Reign O'er Me" proper. The four themes also surface on many other songs throughout the album; the most subtle example being when the "Helpless Dancer" theme appears on "Bell Boy" (the main song) played on synthesizer as a brief interlude. Some themes from other songs also make "surprise" reappearances here and there. These leitmotifs help giving the work an impression of a cohesive unity. Critical reaction and impact In 2000 Q magazine placed Quadrophenia at number 56 in its list of the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever. In 2001, the TV network VH1 named it the 86th greatest album of all time. In 2003, the album was ranked number 266 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. IGN placed Quadrophenia at number 1 in their list of the greatest classic rock albums of all time. Subsequent productions In 1979 the film Quadrophenia was released, with three additional songs written by Pete Townshend . While the film was an accurate visual interpretation of Townshend's vision of Jimmy and his surroundings, the inspired casting of a very young Sting as the Ace Face remains one of the most memorable moments of the film. In the film, the music was largely relegated to the background, and was not performed by the cast as if a rock opera. In summer 1996, The Who, with a large backing group featuring among others Zak Starkey on drums (his first appearance as The Who's drummer), Geoff Whitehorn and Simon Townshend on electric guitar (the former played lead guitar on almost all of the songs) and keyboardists Jon Carin and John "Rabbit" Bundrick, performed Quadrophenia in its entirety for the first time in many years in London's Hyde Park, with guest performers Phil Daniels as the Narrator/Jimmy, Gary Glitter as The Rocker, Adrian Edmonson as the Ace Face/Bellboy, Stephen Fry as the hotel manager (screaming, "Bellboy!"), Trevor McDonald as the newsreader and Pink Floyd's David Gilmour as the bus driver. Gilmour also played additional lead guitar for that first performance – he sang and played lead guitar on The Dirty Jobs, plus performed lead guitar on Sea and Sand, Dr. Jimmy, The Rock, Love, Reign O'er Me and 5:15 (Reprise). For the subsequent extensive tour of the UK and the U.S., Daniels was replaced and Gilmour's role was taken over by Simon Townshend. Gary Glitter and P.J. Proby (subsequently) made guest appearances as The Godfather, and Billy Idol also guested as the Ace Face/Bellboy, also subsequently being replaced. In 2005, A live performance of Quadrophenia from The Who's late 1996/early tour was included in a 3-disc DVD box set released by Rhino Entertainment, also featuring a live performance of Tommy from 1989 as well as other hit songs performed live. Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey provided special commentary, and an interview with Billy Idol was also included. The album was covered in its entirety by Phish on October 31, 1995 as part of the band's "Halloween musical costume extravaganzas", which was later released as Live Phish Volume 14. The jam band also covered the track "Drowned" on their live album New Year's Eve 1995 - Live at Madison Square Garden. In November 2005, Luna C Productions staged a theatrical version of Quadrophenia in Los Angeles, starring Stephen Shareaux as Jimmy. Additional performances occurred in March and November 2006. In February 2007, students from the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama staged "the first independent theatrical production (of Quadrophenia) blessed by Pete Townshend" at the Sherman Theatre in Cardiff, Wales. During the Behind The Laughter episode of The Simpsons, the cover of the Krustophenia record is a parody of Quadrophenia. Quadrophenia-The Story Introduction to the Album and Story Line by Marc Leaman Quadrophenia Dialogue Quadrophenia The Story by Alan Fletcher Add your thoughts about what the story means to you The Who - Quadrophenia The Prologue By Alan Fletcher Compiled and transcribed by Brian Cady Prologue In the dark room, as narrow as a railway carriage, sudden spotlights illuminated the stage. Amplifiers, a web of wires to carry the live currents, the silver edges of the drums gleaming bright, hi-hat and snare. They're almost here, he thought, almost here. Feverish, feeling the amphetamine racing in his blood. High and free, more pills in his pocket, thick smoke in the light, the hum and drone of the amplifiers. Nearly here. People wedged him in, packing closer, tighter, not restless but waiting, anticipating, willing the first harsh chord and the violence of the moment, cut out of time. The moment in the rose garden. Waiting, keenly watching, almost nervously, their faces tensed. Pills going down, feeding them up, and the first shouts, louder now, speeding them towards release. The waxing voices. Hemmed in and pushed closer, edging towards the empty stage, his head screaming now, now, now, now, his eyes dazzled, blinded by the brilliant lights. Nearly here. Back there now, somewhere out of sight, dressed and ready, fingering strings. Any moment he thought. Any time. They're nearly here. Across the room, head and shoulders above the rest, blonde hair swept back, he saw the Face, patiently waiting, not seeking his audience now but part of it, part of the sea of faces and sharing the vision, unselfconsciously eager. The crowd shuffled forward, gaining inches, someone leaping, breaking clear for a second, dropping back out of sight, like the failing salmon at the waterfall. He felt the dampness under his arms, sweat on his face, rivulets coursing down his hot cheeks and dripping, dripping from his chin. His arms were pinned and he couldn't free them to wipe away the wet smears, but the discomfort quickly passed. It didn't matter. His lips formed the words, rehearsing the moment: "I can go anyway ... way I choose" Daltrey leaning back, rocking back, arm raised, the microphone lead snaking through his fingers. Crashing forward I can live anyhow win or lose Dancing. "I can go anywhere ... for something new ANYWAY, ANYHOW ANYWHERE I CHOOSE" Cajoling, threatening, teasing, knowing "WHY DON'T YOU ALL F-F-F-FA-FA-FA-FADF, A-A-A-AWAY" Moments of vision. Almost here. Townshend, Daltrey, Entwistle, Moon. The shape of ascending, spiraling sound, the windmilling, descending arms, the wild, free relentless drumming. Drunk with the music. Waiting, waiting, now, now, now, now. NOW. And then, at its climax, the guitar smashed and pulped and splintered against the boards, the electric scream of its dying, breaking open the amplifier, the loudest wound. The crush and chaos and then the screech and whistle of feed back, bleeding through the system endlessly. "ANYWAY, ANYHOW ANYWHERE" Yes "NOTHING GETS IN MY WAY" Yes, now "NOT EVEN LOCKED DOORS" Listen "ANYWAY, ANYHOW ANYWHERE I CHOOSE" The high harsh whistle of noise. Moon ripping, tearing, hacking, puncturing the tight skins. Tearing down the defences, letting in the sea. Anyway and anyhow. Nothing matters. Nothing beyond this room. Nothing out there in the night. Nothing, nothing, nothing. He felt the tightness in his throat. His limbs ached. They pushed him closer and nearer to the dream. It was time. They were here. Look at us, he thought. Look at us. We're out in the light. " P-people t-try to p-p-p-put us d-own Talking bout my generation J-ju-just b-because we g-g-get around Talking bout my generation Things they do I-look a-awawf-ful o-c-cold Talking bout my generation H-hope hope I d-die before I g-ge-get old" "This is m-my-my generation My generation baby" "Why don't you all f-f-f-f-fade away Talking bout my generation Don't t-try and d-d-dd-dig what we all s-ss-say Talking bout my generation Not t-t-try-ying to c-c-ca-cause a big sensa-shun Talking bout my generation" "J-j-just t-t-talk-in bout m-my gene-ra-ra-shun" "My generation" "This is my generation" Chapter One OUT IN THE LIGHT "but I know sometimes I must get out in the light better leave her behind where the kids are alright The Kids Are Alright" AUGUST 1964 Jimmy Cooper lived in Shepherd's Bush, West London, barely a mile from the Goldhawk Social Club. He had left school and worked in the post room in an Advertising Agency in the West End. Like most of his contemporaries he earned decent money for his age - seventeen - and spent this, according to a strict hierarchy of necessity and choice, on a variety of things. His mother took board from him at two pounds a week. Then the rest of his £15 wages went on clothes, dancing, records, magazines and pills. Not aspirins or Victory Vs but pep pills: leapers, french blues, purple hearts and black bombers. Amphetamine, or Benzedrine, the stuff that dreams are made of. He also paid religiously the regular weekly installments on a hire purchase account. It was for a motor scooter, a Vespa, Gran Sportique. A G.S. The scooter had five spotlights, four mirrors, front and back racks, trimmed with fur, and chrome side panels. It had cost him half-a-crown a square inch to have them done but, looking at the burnished metal and the beauty of it, the expense seemed worthwhile. So did the money he'd lavished on appropriate clothing, like an authentic US Army Parka with fur-trimmed hood. The two went together and made him visible to the street. It was impossible not to notice what they meant and signified. Jimmy Cooper was a mod. In 1964 the mods were an important, and very visible social force in English, and not just London life. Subsequently, for the most part, ignored or dismissed by cultural historians (perhaps because they lacked an explicit political programme, perhaps because, like most self-confessed movements in the sixties they enjoyed only a relatively brief life), they were nevertheless of extraordinary significance in their own right, and as catalysts of further change. The movement, with its dedication to fashion, music and pills, was the first massive, manifestation of youth culture, and formed the advance guard of the first truly post-war generation in England. Originating at street level, and always retaining their roots in the predominantly working-class environment, the mods displayed more than a taste for sharp clothes and American music, even though it was their appearance (and numbers) which seemed most directly to threaten existing social ideas and values. Their real importance lay in the phenomenal success with which they created and communicated an alternative, and in many ways subversive, culture in the midst of an increasingly affluent society. Despite the fact that they lacked a political programme, the mods revolutionized a generation by making it conscious of itself. For all that, the mods were never an 'underground' movement, a secret society. They deliberately and very successfully advertised their presence on the streets. This visibility stemmed directly from their wide-ranging and essential commitment to style - styles of cool, elegant clothing, styles of talking and dancing, styles of music. Their musical tastes, increasingly esoteric, ranged from black soul music, old blues numbers adopted and adapted by emerging British groups like the Rolling Stones, the Who (earlier the High Numbers) and the Small Faces, rhythm-and-blues, and the kind of rock 'n' roll that showed itself open to such influences. Emotive and expressive, developing, mutating, (but very definitely the shape of things to come), with its deepest roots in an alien American culture, the music embodied new attitudes and alternatives. Moreover, in its language and mood, it seemed closer to the street, to actual and everyday experience, rejecting the romanticism and escapism of the fifties, and the notion that music simply existed as a form of entertainment. Like fashion, music composed a crucial and defining element of the mod experience. The music of the Who and other British groups like the Small Faces, the real mod groups, reflected that experience, both lyrically (with songs like 'Can't Explain' and 'My Generation') and in performance, where improvisation, fashion and violence consorted on stage. The Who's celebrated habit of breaking their instruments on stage, a practice which originated by accident, was also an appropriate mod gesture since it registered the sense of frustration, outrage and anger (a frustration at the inadequacies of street vocabulary, or even of language itself, in 'Can't Explain'), and turned it into action, violence and performance, reflecting again what was happening outside. Clothes of course were central to mod culture, in the same way as pills, scooters and music. An early commentator on the movement, John Kreidl, defined mod as: 'a style of clothes - flash and plastic - a little hard, not soft, not natural. Mod comes from the English word Modernist. It means someone who has taken the uniform from technology and the elegance from the uniform and reacted to modern times this way. It is a cool aesthetic; a sun-glass aesthetic.' The mods were enormously self-conscious about what they wore and how they wore it, about the length of jacket-vents and acceptable materials, about colour (white was a favourite) and shape. Jackets were worn with only the top button fastened and hands (except for the thumbs) thrust into the pockets. The thumbs stayed outside the flaps, pointing down towards the catch. Wide lapels had button-holes, slim lapels didn't, and the material might be either eighteen-ounce striped worsted or eleven-ounce Mohair, Perhaps with coloured linings treated for anti-static. A mod could tell whether a suit was bespoke or Burtons by feeling under the lapels. If he felt the sewn up ridge of a full collar it was bespoke and koshe. Above all, the clothes had to be neat and well-tailored, just as hairstyles had to be short and well-cut. Even so, there was never a single style. The 'look' changed, often within weeks, and often at the instigation of a 'Face', a self-appointed leader who deliberately re-fashioned the image, hatching new ideas from the material to hand. Commercial interests rarely dictated the fashions, though the Saturday squares and the back pages of the music papers often reflected the changes from bell-bottoms to parallels, training shoes to cuban heels. A number of magazines emerged directly catering for the mod market. The media at last couldn't afford to ignore what was happening in the streets. But the mods claimed its attention in other, more dramatic and sensational ways. The rivalry between the mods and the rockers - an English version of the American Hell's Angels - frequently expressed itself in confrontation and violence, the two sides coming together as if by agreement particularly around the south-east resorts. The violence displayed an element of ritual as important as the symbolic clothing, the scooters and the motor bikes, beyond the comprehension of the newspapers. The reports from Margate and Hastings, the scenes of many pitched battles between large gangs of mods and rockers, were typical of the incomprehension, unease and moral indignation felt by the establishment. It's worth quoting a selection (from The Times) in order to remember how it was, in the summer of 1964: RESTAURANT MANAGERESS HURT IN FIGHT MARGATE, MAY 18 There was further trouble here today. Gangs of youths and girls catcalled and threatened each other on the beach after a stabbing incident in the afternoon, and one group later roamed through the town attacking and threatening those thought to belong to rival gangs, and in some cases passers-by. Young people poured into the town throughout the day by motor cycle, scooter and train. The local police reinforced from other Kent forces, moved groups of young people along and attempted to prevent a clash. To a great extent they succeeded. The first incident occurred early in the morning at Margate railway station. Margate police said windows in the buffet were broken by young people and a fight followed. Mrs. Stott, manageress of the buffet, and Mrs. E. Green a cleaner who went to her assistance, were slightly injured. Mrs. Stott said: 'The boy who started it was so good looking and nicely dressed; you wouldn't have thought he was a nasty type.' MARCH TO COURT Around midday magistrates were dealing with charges arising from yesterday's disturbances. A crowd of 200 'Mods' marched to the Town Hall, where the court was sitting, chanting 'Come out you "Rockers"'. A police inspector and three other officers met them and the inspector called: 'Break them up'. As the police advanced, the 'Mods' scattered. Early this afternoon two youths, John Stewart, aged 17, and Michael Fenton, aged 18, were treated at Margate General Hospital after a stabbing incident. Both were discharged. An hour later there was a fight halving several youths on the beach. One of them emerged with four wounds on his back and leg, apparently inflicted by a razor or small knife. He described his opponents as 'Mody'. Ten police officers immediately attempted to clear young people from the surrounding beach. Before they could do so a group of about 50 'Rockers', nearly all wearing black leather jackets, moved from the promenade to the sands. The police prevented a clash and the group moved off along the beach and regained the promenade. The 'Rockers' were followed by a crowd of several hundred young people who taunted them with shouts of 'coward' and clapped rhythmically. Police formed a barrier along the promenade as the 'Rockers' recrossed it, to prevent the crowd following. The 'Rockers' then wandered through the town for several hours: one of them struck a passing car driver, and they forced a scooter rider off his machine in a car park next to the 'Dreamland' amusement park, where incidents occurred yesterday. The scooter rider received cuts and bruises from his fall. The 'Rockers' also ransacked a stationary scooter without injuring the owner. In another incident in the car park a youth punched another scooter owner who had appealed successfully for the return of his crash helmet. The blow was delivered from behind on the back of the neck. Four people were arrested by police during the disturbances. Two of them will appear in court tomorrow. The others, being under 17, will come before a juvenile court later. In conversation, the 'Rockers', many of whom said they lived in Margate, claimed they were defending the town against an alien invasion of 'Mods'. The 'Mods', who came largely from London and towns in Kent, said they had come to enjoy themselves at the seaside. SPECIAL SQUAD ENDS FIGHTING BOURNEMOUTH, MAY 18 Between 40 and 50 youths were taken to police headquarters here today after a fight on the town's West Undercliff. Three went to hospital, but none was seriously hurt. All were local youths. No weapons were used. A preliminary police statement said: 'It is anticipated that charges will be preferred against some of the youths. Identification parades are being held.' The fight was ended by a special squad of 30 police who had been held in reserve in case of trouble. BENCH SITS TWICE Brighton Magistrates held two special sittings yesterday to deal with charges arising from incidents in the town over Whitsun. During the first sitting of the Bench yesterday morning the police were so busy controlling gangs in the resort that they had to ask for several remands. At Margate Dr. George Simpson, chairman of the magistrates referred to 'long-haired, mentally unstable petty little Sawdust Caesars' when about 50 youths and young men appeared before the Court. ARRESTS REACH 70 AFTER HASTINGS CLASHES POLICE MARCH GANGS OUT TO TOWN BOUNDARIES After disturbances yesterday, police made a further 53 arrests at Hastings, bringing the total for the weekend to 70. Fifteen more arrests were made at Great Yarmouth. HASTINGS, August 3 Police here went on the offensive this evening to clear the town and seafront of the hordes of youths who had spent the weekend fighting and terrorizing holidaymakers. Using completely new tactics, they herded the Mods, Rockers and their followers into groups of 75 to 500 and marched them three miles to the borough boundaries. Most of the groups departed readily, as they have become so used to marching sheepishly behind their leaders that few realized what was happening until they were well on the way to Rye. Youths attempting to get back into town by public transport were taken off the buses and were allowed back in small groups and on foot. The seafront was clear tonight for the first time for 72 hours, for most of those 'accompanied' out of town by the police chose not to return. Local residents, delighted at this new development, brought glasses of lemonade to the police escorting the groups. Mr. Donald Brown, the Chief Constable tonight said that this was 'an inspired piece of policemanship'. 'OPEN MIND' ON DEATH Police here were still trying late tonight to identify the body of a youth aged between 15 and 17 which was washed up early today on the seafront. The body was found by a group of young people spending the night on the beach a few hours after some of the most unpleasant incidents of the weekend when screaming mobs attacked police, knocking one constable unconscious. The Chief Constable said he had an open mind about the death. There way no evidence to suggest foul play. Investigations were continuing. Tonight the 270 police from five forces, including 69 from the Metropolitan division flown from Northolt airport, had the situation well in hand. For the first time for 72 hours the Mods, Rockers and their followers were no longer threatening to cause new disturbances. A further 53 arrests today brought the weekend total to 70, including two girls. GROUPS BROKEN UP Outbreaks of hooliganism had been quickly broken up. The gangs were kept continuously on the move or were restricted to about 100 yards of beach at the far end of the town. The police plan, worked out weeks earlier at a conference of chief constables of the south-east district and senior officers from the Metropolitan force, was to have sufficient men on the ground from the start to break up groups while they were still small and not to make too many arrests in the early stages. The chief constables thought that without this plan the town might have been badly broken up. Nevertheless, behind them at Hastings the gangs have left broken windows, broken cars, one of their number drowned, four policemen injured, a child and several other young girls hurt by flying stones or bottles, and many arrested. ORDINARY YOUTHS The first lesson to be learnt from this weekend is that the popular explanation of Mods and Rockers as the only troublemakers should be ended. The fact is that over three-quarters of the youngsters from 15-22 who descended on this town over the weekend, clearly admittedly knowing that there would be trouble, were to outward appearances at least perfectly ordinary. They did not come by scooter or motor cycle, they did not wear fancy clothes, nor did they have long hair. Of the 3000 to 5000 youths here over the holiday, fewer than 300 could be classed as Mods or Rockers. Whatever enlightened opinion in the rest of England may think, there is probably not an adult here but would welcome a return to the days when a good thrashing would have discouraged the young people's sheeplike hysteria and a massive display of childishness. In the hotels, cafes, public houses and shops along the seafront, there is complete agreement that this is the solution. For three days press, police and aimless hordes of youngsters have been marching slowly up and down the seafront. After breaking off at one o'clock this morning to catch a few hours sleep, the youngsters began the big walk again soon after breakfast with an occasional scuffle or outbreak of rock-throwing. The extraordinary thing is that none of them seems to know why they are doing this. They walk in gloomy silence or sit fully-clothed on the beach waiting for something to happen. Boredom is the likeliest explanation. None of them thinks of home as anything but a place to eat and sleep. 'We just go with the gang, two young lads said. 'No, we don't do much else cock. 'They couldn't want us home on a Bank holiday, would they? So we go wherever the gang is going'. Most of the scooter-riding youths are from clubs around London. All seemed to know that Hastings would be the centre of the August Bank holiday clashes. Most of them had arrived in groups of up to 30 and there way considerable mixing between the groups, so they all knew the general plan of campaign. The weekend pattern was simple. Early morning scuffles and minor incidents. By one o'clock with the public houses open and crowded with youths and girls, the incidents became suddenly more serious. A few drinks too many and someone would start Rocker-hunting or alternatively Mod-hunting. The pack would follow, growing in a few minutes to many hundreds. 'HERE FOR THE KICKS' Parents are apparently not considered when it comes to holidays. Only a few of the youngsters were worried that their families might find that they were at Hastings or sleeping on the beach. They placed the blame on anyone but themselves. One youth spoken to as he lay with a crowd on the beach said: 'It's you bloody lot that are doing this.' Almost as he spoke he picked up a rock and hurled it over the heads of holidaymakers at a rival mob. 'We're here for the kicks, said a lad of 17 from Walthamstow. 'There's nothing to do at home, we go out looking for it.' Another said. 'We don't do nothing much, see; just dance halls, birds, that sort of thing.' 'No, I'm not enjoying myself, mate, replied another lad. 'You'll tell me something better to do then. I'm just waiting.' 'My old man doesn't mind what I do as long as I don't get put inside', said a long-haired youth. 'These bloody coppers are too rough - it was better at Margate', said the leader of another group. 'That one here's just clobbered my mate and he wasn't doing anything, and my bird here was pushed off the railings - she could have been hurt'. Asked why the pockets of his jeans were full of rocks this youth said: 'Just in case mate. You don't ever know, do you?' WEEKENDS OF UPROAR Serious disturbances by Mods and Rockers at the seaside have occurred at each of the three Bank holidays the year. They were:- EASTER (March 27-30) - At Clacton. 100 arrests, and 56 charged, or bailed pending enquiries. WHITSUNTIDE (May 16-18) - At Brighton. 1000 involved, 7.5 arrested, 48 variously dealt with in court; at Margate, 400 involved, 65 arrested, 47 punished by the court; at Bournemouth, 54 dealt with in court. This Weekend (Saturday to Monday), At Hastings, 70 arrests, and at Great Yarmouth, 31. 1964 was the year of the mod. I was remembering Margate as I left home for the Goldhawk. Some jerk magistrate had called us 'long-haired, mentally unstable', which just showed how much he knew about it all. Long hair was a thing of the past and groups who still had it were relics, like the beats. You wouldn't have caught me in a fucking jazz club. Perhaps they couldn't afford a barber, lazy, unemployed bastards. I even preferred the grease to the beatniks; at least they cared about their transport. The beats weren't our kind. There was going to be a crowd at the Goldhawk. The line of scooters parked on the pavement outside proved it. There were plenty of mods around on the streets, too, some of them still sitting on their bikes, leaning against the finely-polished, tubular steel, fur-covered backrests, talking the language of machines and music, watching the new arrivals to check out their territories and admire the fashions. Pete, Dave and Chalkie were there, looking cool and elegant, and so was Monkey, her short blonde hair drawing attention, dancing around, already pilled-up. Pete was wearing a full-length suede coat which was also being noticed and admired. Shit, he knew how to dress well. Shit. He could afford to. I parked the G.S. and joined them. I wasn't going to make a big impression, not tonight, but my clothes were alright. Monkey would notice them, but then she noticed anything in trousers. Anyone could have Monkey's undivided attention without earning it. I was rather hoping to have a taste of the girl in the striped blazer and white T shirt who was feeling the creases in Pete's parallels, but it wasn't likely. One of Pete's assets was a magnetic personality. I preferred to think of it like the bit of jam in the glass jar left out, to catch wasps, but then I was simply jealous. I never had many wasps around me, except when I had pills to share out. 'Hi.' 'Hello, Jimmy.' 'Hello, Monkey.' Monkey grinned and put her arm through mine. She didn't really need an introduction. She was flying, you could see it in her eyes. I wanted to talk to Pete, tell him about the newspapers, the magistrate and that phrase about 'long-haired, mentally unstable petty little Sawdust Caesars'. It had become rather a favourite with my Dad, who didn't understand anything at the best of times, and probably hadn't a clue what the words meant. They served his purpose though. Life at home was piss-awful and getting worse. There were times when I wanted to leave, and times when I felt like reducing the place to a ruin, smashing and breaking everything in sight, doing what, the Who did at the end of every act. That was the most magical thing. A single identity. One and complete. Mods. Pete had turned away, typically. Monkey was still around, but Ray Davies had finished and I could hear the group inside beginning to warm up. It had started to rain too, softly, the water splashing on the chrome and lacquer of the scooters, brilliant under the streetlights. At least my G.S. was being admired. It was definitely one of the best machines in the whole fucking row. I wiped the moisture from the seat and went inside the club with Monkey. You never know, perhaps she had some blues, working in a chemist. I'd need some for Brighton; a whole shop full. I needed some now. Chapter Thirteen BELL BOYS AND RAIN He was glad he'd gone back, even to wander aimlessly through the streets and around the town, joining the last few holidaymakers along the promenade. The season was drawing towards its close. On the beach, a single deck chair looked like a curious relic of something that had happened once, but was over now, standing by itself in acres of shingle. The shingle stretched away to meet the sea in the blue distance. In the town there was no longer any evidence of the damage that had been done over the holiday. Repairs were complete and the restocked flower beds provided the finishing touches to the cosmetic. It was one and whole again, hiding the junk beneath, but a clean fresh place to be, at the land's end and in the salt air. Jimmy revisited all the places made memorable by the Bank holiday: the cafes, the amusements, the Aquarium - even the Courtroom. He found, after searching around, the basement where he'd taken Steph, and went down and stood for a moment in its darkness, touching the wall with his hands. His life was spread all over Brighton; it looked back at him, wherever he went. That night, by choice, he slept in the open air on the beach, shivering with cold but close to the sea. It lapped near him in the night and he woke, listening to its constant movements, its soothing hiss over the shingles. He went to sleep again, knowing he was safe from its tides. He thought of nothing. The morning was hazy and the town quiet when he woke, his ears singing with the cries of the gulls. He walked up to the promenade and, for an hour, just gazed at the expanse of incoming water, watching the changing colours and churning foam. Seagulls swept across his vision and the air began to warm. He found a 'Seafare' cafe open early and sat in the window drinking coffee, watching people emerge on to the promenade. He was here, he thought, holding the edge of the table and comforted by its solidity. He was here. He was free. After breakfast he sat down on a bench. He didn't know what to do, but he could always walk around again and revisit the places he'd seen yesterday. He fished in his pockets for a couple of pills and washed them down with a mouthful of the gin he'd bought on arriving. Feeling chilled, he started walking towards the West pier, wondering whether he was bored, his Parka damp from the night on the beach. He decided against walking on the pier. It didn't seem worth it. He went back down to the beach, his feet crunching over the gravely shingle, his head slightly dizzy from the blues and gin. He threw stones into the deep water, and then went back up the steps to the promenade, wishing the scooter was there. The wind-swept promenade was almost deserted and it felt cold there, the wind bitter. After a while, uncertain what to do, he stopped outside the Grand Hotel, its glass doors repaired, like everything else. He leaned against the railings and threw pieces of shingle at a lamppost, hearing the chink of flint on metal occasionally. He was bored and cold, so cold he was shaking. He looked back along the promenade and even Brighton looked dull and grey, a place like any other. Why? he thought. Why? He took another pull at the bottle and thought about the home he didn't have to go to, the friends he'd lost, the crushed scooter. There was nothing left, and now Brighton disappointed him. No bikes were going to come around the corner in convoy, nothing was going to happen. There were no concerts to go to, and in the cafes nobody played the Juke boxes or broke the chairs, or talked. Brighton was, after all, in the same world, just a little further along the tracks. He was tired, and there was nowhere to go. He'd reached the land's end. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * The whole beach was grey. Wet and grey. It was strange how even old dears with piss-all to do would come and spend their Sunday's here, sitting in bloody shingle and watching the sea. Weird how the sea meant something to everyone. I left the railings and wandered along the concrete promenade again, checking the loose five bob in my Parka pocket, and feeling the cold wind. I still had some gin left, thank god, 'cos I was going to need it. The Parka felt like it was sticking to my back it was so wet. Even so, I couldn't understand why I felt so fucking miserable, except I was tired and I didn't know what to do or where to go. In fact there was nothing to feel happy about except the sea. And you can't live in the sea. Music was coming out of one of the record shops in the town: 'Heat Wave' by the Vandelles. I stopped outside and listened. Then 'Mickey's Monkey' by the Miracles. Mod music, but it didn't mean the same now, I felt a bit cheated with it all, now I was outside it. I was tired of moving with the fashions, trying to keep up, like struggling under water. I just felt tired somewhere inside, as if my guts had turned to slime. Perhaps it was the gin and the pills .. . but it wasn't really. It was another feeling, like waiting to be solid again and firm where the slime was inside, where the junk was. I couldn't seem to hold on to myself now, even when things were bad outside. I'd got my freedom. I didn't belong to anyone now, not my parents or Fulford, or even Steph. But now I was free, I didn't even seem to belong in the world any more. Soon I'd be like the tramp, a bit of junk on waste ground. I was frightened by that. I walked back towards the promenade and crossed the road again by the Grand Hotel. Then I saw the scooter and my heart started to pound. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Oh let me go back to the ocean Oh let me go back to the sea A wave crashed on to the beach with remarkable force. A fine mist of spray reached the promenade and the sound of stones clattering evenly down with the receding surf made a sound like sheet metal. it distracted him for a second, the silver-glinting sea, touched in pastel pinks and blues, but his gaze returned to the scooter with reverence and awe. Not a detail out of place, brilliantly gleaming and fully decorated, it stood against the old-fashioned wrought iron railings of the Grand Hotel, machine and symbol, in grace. His eyes shone as he walked towards it, wanting to touch and know it, to understand its power. And as he walked he realized too that it belonged to the one he revered above all others: the Ace, Gerry Stanley. Its burnished chrome reflected his glory, and he remembered. He ran his fingers gently over the fly screen, over the lamps and mirrors pointing out from the front rack and grasped the controls tightly in his hand. The movement, the feel of the steel-cold ironmongery of the bike, seemed to jolt his arm, like a mild electric shock; he couldn't release it. The noise of a taxi puffing up at the kerb with its tyres crunching on the grit in the gutter made him look up, as a man in grey uniform moved swiftly down the Hotel steps towards it. The Bell Boy collected the bags and suitcases from the taxi's boot and began to walk back up the stairs, preceded by the customer in his dark, city suit. Jimmy watched the performance, the whole pantomime of subservience, with disgust, glad again that he no longer served or carried. The Bell Boy glanced back with an ingratiating smile and Jimmy recognized him, feeling the nausea swell inside. The Bell Boy and the Hero, they were one and the same. The Ace and the Bell Boy. His body buckling slightly, stooping, under the weight of the bags he was carrying, smiling to please. There were no more heroes, they were lost in uniform. walking, climbing towards the glass doors, the ones he'd smashed and broken, the glass like confetti over the pavement. Jimmy saw, in the back of his minds the gun butt rap upon the door. He watched them enter the foyer, angry, ashamed and betrayed. Ashamed for the Bell Boy, the pity of it hurting his throat, emptying him again. He ran up to the doors, the sunlight glancing off the glass panels as they revolved slowly, reflecting him in each. He stared through into the high room, saw the sweep of the staircase and the marble floor, the greenery of palm plants, and the Bell Boy drop a suitcase in front of the doorman. The glass magnified the blue figure, ridiculously dressed, and the image filled the screen. 'Bell Boy! Bell Boy! Bell Boy! Bell Boy!' "Bell Boy Bell Boy Bell Boy BellBoy Bell Boy Bell Boy Bell Boy Bell Boy" The sharp words screamed out and echoed somewhere, distantly. Savage and mocking and ashamed and desperate. The lonely voice, crying out pain and misunderstanding; what he couldn't explain, what he couldn't understand "Bellllllll booooooooyyyyyyyy Bellllllllllllllll Booooooooooyyyyyyy" Echoing somewhere. He ran down the steps and past the railings, stopping by the scooter, no longer the same. He dug frantically into the pocket of his Parka to find his key ring, trying each key in the lock, watching the swing doors behind him. The key slipped home. He switched the petrol on and kicked the silver scooter into life, revving it viciously, exhaust smoke belching and pluming out behind him. The cable tightened as he yanked the throttle back, opening up the carb. Petrol and air flooded in, mixed, exploded and drove the scooter off its stand, the stand slapping under the boards. He drove it towards Rottingdean, the sea stretching away on one side of him, heathland on the other. The narrow strip of grey tarmac ran between them like a boundary, the cutting-edge. He held the throttle wide-open, the hot tyres biting into the road, the bike purring beneath him and the wind rushing by. The adrenaline raced like pills inside him on the open road, and felt good. The sea glistened in the bright sunlight, white crests to the waves in the miles of deep water and its faint roar, as it broke around the cliffs, meeting him. He banked the scooter to the right, leaned into the turn and was on to the grass, verging the road and running to the edge of the chalk cliff, dropping away steeply. He weaved the bike, maintaining his speed, the throttle still open, pushing it towards the edge and then pulling away, throttling back, hearing the front suspension bottoming as he banked and turned, banked and turned. He stopped, letting the bike roll over on to the grass, faintly giddy and suddenly tired. He looked out at the sea, swelling beneath him and stretching away into the distance, and saw a rock jutting out from the headland, black and jagged and beautiful, alone in the sea. The sight of it affected him, he didn't know why, except that it seemed precious somehow, something to hold to ('the stone's in the midst of all'). He lay down on the grass and watched it, noticing gulls flying towards it, settling like specks on its black surface, then leaving again and circling, arcing down in steep flight. He remembered the Bell Boy, climbing the stairs and serving, and the thought sickened him. The memory seemed to break the last thin cord between him and the past, what he had been and what he had come back to Brighton to find. The final betrayal and the end of the promise. Even the heroes had fallen away and been lost, fitting themselves to the mould and no longer, like the rock, on the outside and the edge of everything, differently apart. Just for a handful of silver he left us, Just for a riband to stick in his coat - Found the one gift of which fortune bereft us, Lost all the others she let us devote; They, with the gold to give, doled. out silver, So much was theirs who so little allowed: How all our copper had gone, for his service! Rags - were they purple, his heart had been proud! We that had loved him so, followed him, honoured him, Lived in his mild and magnificent eye, Learned his great language, caught his clear accents, Made him our pattern to live and to die! * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * He alone breaks from the van and the freemen, - He alone sinks to the rear and the slaves! The last hero, Bell Boy Bell Boy Bell Boy Bell Boy Bellllllll booooooyyyyyyyy Bellllllllllllllll boooooooooooooooooyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy Into the fresh wind, gathering clouds. Got a new job and I'm newly born, You should see me dressed up in my uniform I work in a hotel all gilt and flash Remember the gaff where the doors we smashed? BELL BOY I got to keep running now, Bell boy! Keep my lip buttoned down Bell boy! Carry the bloody baggage out, Bell boy! Always running at someone's heel You know how I feel? Always running at someone's heel Rain started to fall, but very gently. Gently raining. It didn't trouble him. He laid his head in his arms, weary and hungry and lost and afraid and lonely, and began to weep. Behind him, out of sight, a rainbow arched over the heathland, the colours running together. He tried to stand, and collapsed back. He took the bottle of gin from his pocket, unscrewed the lid, and emptied it, throwing it over the cliff in a wide arc. He tried to hear it breaking below him. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I sort of followed the bottle over. I threw it high and wide like a cricket ball from the boundary. It sailed in the wind like a kite and I got to my feet and felt the ground fall away. At first it was just the release of pressure beneath my feet, my tired weary feet, then it was the actual weight of my legs hanging from my waist somehow. I moved to the edge and the ribbon of white chalk close to the edge suddenly widened and I went over. I was slow, falling slowly, dropping down the side of the chalk cliff, nearer to the sea and its sound. It changed colour as I fell. There was no noise. No sound at all, anywhere. But I knew it was real. I was falling in the thin rain, moving towards the sea. It felt warm. Comforting deep, folding me in, dosing over me. I sank in its greenness, and then rose, slowly still, breaking the surface and back in the light and the gentle rain. I saw something glinting and strange in the distance, through the mist, and I was swimming towards it. The scooter. It floated on the water, on its side, one chrome breast washed by the waves. I touched it, feeling along the lines, rubbing the chrome with my fingers. Then the tide swelled and took it away, into the mist. I lost sight of it. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * When he opened his eyes the rain had thickened. It streamed on to his hair, down his face, drenching him. He looked up and saw a grey sky, the clouds gathering in and bunching. He waited until the rain had stopped. He lay down above the steep white, chalk-white cliff, and let the rain wash over him. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * It was getting dark, but the rain had stopped. I didn't mind. I was drenched and the wind was cold and the grass wet, but none of it mattered any more. It was better this way, better that it happened when everything seemed worst, when it was cold and raining and dark and lonely; better that it happened at the edge of the land, with only the sea in front in the darkness. It was better like this because I knew it couldn't have happened anywhere else, couldn't have happened if I was somewhere warm, or with someone else. It couldn't have even happened if l had things to look forward to and somewhere to go. There was nothing here, and there was nothing behind. I was shivering and nervous; really nervous. And it wasn't the gin, or anything like that. It was out of my system. No, it was because I'd realized something at last. I realized what I wanted, what I'd looked for in the music and in heroes, what I gave and expected to receive from my mates, from the mods, what I even wanted from my mum and dad. It was really corny but I didn't give a fucking shit . . . it was love I wanted. I looked at the scooter lying there on the grass and thought of all the hours I'd spent lavishing love on my own, smashed up in a heap by the side of the road and probably stripped clean by now, like a carcass. I thought about Steph. I thought about the stupid cunt I was not just to say it, say 'Steph, I love you.' It didn't matter that she'd have laughed. It wouldn't have made any difference but at least it would have been the truth. It didn't make any difference that Steph didn't know what love was, that she wouldn't believe you loved her even if you brought her roses in the bog. It didn't matter. It was love I needed. Without it, everything was junk. I knew it. Everything was junk without love. "ONLY LOVE CAN MAKE IT RAIN THE WAY THE BEACH IS KISSED BY THE SEA ONLY LOVE CAN MAKE IT RAIN LIKE THE SWEAT OF LOVERS LAYING IN THE FIELDS LOVE, REIGN O'ER ME" And, again, it began to rain, gently and persistently. He put his face up and felt it drum over the skin, running into his collar, over his hands. He climbed to his feet, overcoming the tiredness that almost paralysed his limbs, stiff from the cold. The scooter came off the floor after he'd heaved at it for several minutes, straining and sweating. It started and he revved it up, twisting the throttle. There was music in his head again, but not as it had been, harsh and discordant and violent. It was gentle as rain and soft, soft and swelling chords. He brought the G.S. up to forty and the engine whined at a steady pitch. The wheels slithered on the wet grass, but he leaned and righted it and weaved away, the speed mounting and the engine beginning to scream. He took it towards the edge, racing it down, the music increasing. Even through the blur and the rain he saw the green of the cliff top meet the band of white chalk along the boundary between earth, sky and sea, the land's end. He ran along it for a while, almost on the lip, then turned back, racing up the incline. At the road, he turned again. On the rocky beach below a crab scuttled under a rock. Seaweed lay draped across the rocks that were clear of the water waiting for the tide to claim it, as did the shellfish and molluscs scattered throughout the quiet world of the microscopic ten square feet of space where the scooter came to rest. As it hit the rocks the polished metal crumpled, great slabs of lacquer fell away, lamps shattered, the flyscreen buckled and cracked and the whole statuesque shape, the symbol of the mods splattered like a broken toy. An hour later it was under water. "I'M RECALLING DISTANT MEMORIES RECALLING OTHER NAMES FLOWING THROUGH THE CANYON BOILING IN THE TRAIN" "LET ME FLOW INTO THE OCEAN LET ME GET BACK TO THE SEA LET ME BE CALM LET THE TIDE IN AND SET ME FREE" "People try to put us down Talking bout my generation Just because we get around Talking bout my generation Things they do look awful cold Talking bout my generation Hope I die before I get old This is my generation My generation Why don't you all fade away Talking bout my generation Don't try and dig what we all say Talking bout my generation Not trying to cause a big sensation Talking bout my generation Just talking bout my generation My generation This is my generation" Quadrophenia began shortly after the May 1972 session to attempt to create a follow-up to Who's Next. Pete originally intended a mini-opera about the members of The Who called "Rock Is Dead - Long Live Rock." Ultimately his attention went more to a central character like Tommy, here called Jimmy, who would be a Who fan of the Mod era but would also embody The Who. Townshend had played with this idea before; at one point in Tommy's genesis, Pete planned to have parts of Tommy's personality represented by The Who. Another part of the form of Quadrophenia came from the failure to film Lifehouse. Instead of creating a filmscript that would probably never be made, Pete planned Quadrophenia as an album that would be the soundtrack to a never-made film with both music and sound effects and a photo album to supply the images. Pete said that during the mix he had 16-track tapes piled up to the ceiling. Roger also estimated that Quadrophenia was reduced from 15 hours of recorded music. Pete said he wrote "about fifty songs for this and creamed off the best" and that Quadrophenia could have been a quadruple album. What those other songs were is unknown but a few of them turned up on the Quadrophenia Soundtrack. Pete Townshend: "The whole conception of Quadrophenia was geared to quadraphonic, but in a creative sort of way. I mean I wanted themes to sort of emerge from corners. So you start to get the sense of the fourness being literally speaker for speaker. And also in the rock parts the musical thing would sort of jell together up to the thunder clap, then everything would turn slowly from quad into mono and you'd have this solid sort of rock mono ... then a thunder clap and back out again. We spent months mixing it and then found out that MCA was using the CBS quad system and ... you might as well forget it. So our engineer remixed it in the same manner that it was mixed in stereo, the same sort of creative approach." How successful he was with that mix is still a matter of contention among Who fans. Is it a good mix, a bad mix or a technically flawed mix? In any case the rest of The Who hated the mix, particularly Roger, and their reaction was the first of several disappointments for Pete stemming from Quadrophenia. John remixed the album for the 1979 film but Roger thought it was worse than the original. Pete and Roger were both involved in the 1996 remix. Their pleasure at the results was one of the primary reasons for the 1996-97 Quadrophenia tour. I Am The Sea (2'08) Pete Townshend: "Our story is set on a rock in the middle of a stormy sea..." And where did the cat come from? In live performance, this was presented totally on tape in quadraphonic sound coming from all sides of the arena. The Real Me (3'22) Pete Townshend: "Gets everything going with a quick look in at the psychiatrists, at home and even a quick visit to the local vicar. Mental security is unfortunately not obtained." The demo version has the additional lines, "Rock & Roll's going do me in; do me an evil wrong. Funny how your best friends turn out; it was good for oh so long. I stop myself getting letters and then the people try to turn me back. Publisher wants my memoirs and the limousines are black. Can you see the real me, rock & roll?" Released as a single in the U.S. January 12, 1974 with b-side "I'm One." It peaked at #92 in Billboard and #82 in Cash Box. The ending was edited to cut back to an instrumental section prior to the final "Can you see the real mememememe" and faded out which gave it a running time of 3'26. It was also released as a single in France, Belgium and Japan. Quadrophenia (6'15) Pete Townshend: "The four-personality concept grew out of a naive understanding of schizophrenia - a misunderstanding of schizophrenia. Jimmy is a kid who suffers from schizophrenia, and when he takes pills, his schizophrenia divides up and he suffers from quadrophenia." This was only played live during the British leg of the 1973 tour and was not revived until 1996. Cut My Hair (3'46) News read by John Curle Pete Townshend: "A domestic interlude. The boy recalls a row with his folks that culminated in his leaving home. We also hear a news broadcast mentioning riots in Brighton between Mods and Rockers, events at which he was present the previous week." This song quotes from The High Numbers' single "Zoot Suit." "Cut My Hair" was only played live during the British leg of the 1973 tour and was not revived until 1996. The Punk And The Godfather (5'10) Pete Townshend: "The hero goes to a rock concert. He queues up, pays his money and he decides he is going to see the stars backstage as they come out the stage door. And one of them comes up and says 'fuck off!' And he suddenly realizes that there's nothing really happening in rock & roll. It's just another cross on his list." This song quotes from The Who's "My Generation." On the U.S. album this was called "The Punk Meets The Godfather." I'm One (2'39) Pete Townshend: "When I was a nipper I felt that the guitar was all I had. I wasn't tough enough to be in a gang, I wasn't good looking enough to be in with the birds, not clever enough to make it at school, not good enough on my feet to be good football player, I was a fucking loser. I think everyone feels that way at some point. And somehow being a Mod - even though I was too old to be a Mod really - I wrote this song with that in mind. Jimmy, the hero of the story, is kinda thinking he hasn't got much going for him but at least he's one." The Dirty Jobs (4'30) Piano by Chris Stainton. Stainton, replacing the usual Who-keyboardists Nicky Hopkins or Al Kooper, was an ex-member of Joe Cocker's Grease Band. Pete Townshend: "Suitably disenchanted with his former religion Rock & Roll, he gets a job as a dustman. Unfortunately, his extremely left-wing views are not appreciated by his work mates and he passes on to greater things. No sound effects were available to get the stink across so we used a brass band. Incongruous enough?" Roger Daltrey: "He gets a job as a dustman like most kids have to do when they leave school at fifteen. There's nothing much else. He gets pissed off with that. Of course, when you do something that stinks there's always a lot of other stinky things around. And he gets mixed up with the stinkiest thing of all, politics!" Dropped from the live act after one performance on October 28, 1973 and not revived until 1996. Helpless Dancer (Roger's Theme)(2'32) Pete Townshend: "We get a real look at where the aggression comes from. Jimmy has a conscience that bites fairly deeply. His frustration with the world only makes him more angry, even bitter." The version of this song on the 1973 tour featured live horn work by John. It was dropped for the last three shows of the 1973 North American tour and not revived until 1996. Is It In My Head? (3'46) Pete Townshend: "The track that shows Jimmy, although an ordinary kid, has not only a conscience, but also self doubt. He worries about his own part, and feels maybe his outlook is clouded by pessimism." Produced by The Who and associate producer Glyn Johns. Recorded at Olympic Studios, London May 1972. Dropped from the live act after one performance on October 28, 1973 and not revived until 1996. I've Had Enough (6'14) Pete Townshend: "A lot happens around this bit, much of it in the album cover story. Briefly, Jimmy 'snaps' when he sees a girl he particularly likes with a friend of his. In a desperately self-pitiful state, he smashes up his prize scooter and decides to go to Brighton where he had such a good time with his friends chasing Rockers and eating fish and chips." Dropped from the live act after one performance on October 28, 1973 and not revived until 1996. 5:15 (5'00) Piano by Chris Stainton. Recorded June 27, 1973. Pete Townshend: "His train journey down to Brighton, sandwiched between two city gents is notable for the rather absurd number of purple hearts he consumes in order to wile away the time. He goes through a not entirely pleasant series of ups and downs as he thinks about the gaudier side of life as a teenager that we see in newspapers like the News Of The World. '5:15' was written in Oxford Street and Carnaby Street while I was killing time between appointments. I must try it again sometime, it seems to work!" Unlike most everything else on the album, Pete did not make a demo of this. The music was written in the studio on the day of recording. On September 28, 1973 it was released as a single in the U.K. prior to the album's release. It went to #20. It was also released as a single throughout the world with the exception of the U.S. The Quadrophenia Soundtrack remix was issued as a single everywhere in September 1979. It did not chart in Britain but reached #45 in the U.S. Billboard charts and #53 in Cash Box. The b-side was the remixed version of "I'm One." Live versions can be found on Join Together, the 30 Years Of Maximum R&B video and The Blues To The Bush. Sea And Sand (5'01) Pete Townshend: "Arriving at Brighton, Jimmy brightens up a bit...get the pun? He talks about rows at home and is a little sarcastic as he recalls the evening on the beach with his former girlfriend. This is 1965 and the Mod scene is already falling apart - and what does he do but go to Brighton just to remember. The crazy days when 300,000 Mod kids from London descended on that little beach town were only three weeks ago, but he's already living in the past." The ending quotes from The High Numbers' single "I'm The Face." Drowned (5'28) Piano by Chris Stainton Pete Townshend: "This song, included in Quadrophenia, should actually stand alone. I think in a sense it does. When the tragic hero of Q sings it, it is desperate and nihilistic. In fact, it's a love song, God's love being the ocean and our 'selves' being the drops of water that make it up. Meher Baba said, 'I am the Ocean of Love.' I want to drown in that ocean, the 'drop' will then be an ocean itself. Anyway a tale - when recording this song it rained so hard in Battersea where our studio is that the walls were flowing with sheets of water. Chris Stainton played piano in a booth and when the take was finished he opened the door and about 500 gallons gushed out! Another glorious coincidence. The take on the album is the one." The most often performed song from Quadrophenia during The Who's live shows probably because it gave the band room to improvise. In the 1996-97 edition it was performed solo by Pete on acoustic guitar. Live versions can be found on the Who Rocks America video and the 30 Years Of Maximum R&B video. Bell Boy (Keith's Theme)(4'56) Recorded June 1, 1973. Pete Townshend: "He meets an old Ace Face who's now a bellhop at the very hotel the Mods tore up. And he looks on Jimmy with a mixture of pity and contempt, really, and tells him, in effect, 'Look, my job is shit and my life is a tragedy. But you - look at you, you're dead!'" A live version with Keith can be found on the 30 Years Of Maximum R&B video. Dr. Jimmy (including "Is It Me?" - John's Theme) (8'42) Pete Townshend: "'Dr. Jimmy' was meant to be a song which somehow gets across the explosive, abandoned wildness side of his character. Like a bull run amok in a china shop. He's damaging himself so badly that he can get to the point where he's so desperate that he'll take a closer look at himself. The part where he says, 'What is it, I'll take it. Who is she, I'll rape it.' That's really the way I see Keith Moon in his most bravado sort of states of mind." A live version can be found on Who's Last. The Rock (6'37) Pete Townshend: "It's getting in a boat, going out to sea and sitting on a rock waiting for the waves to knock him off that makes him review himself. He ends up with the sum total of frustrated toughness, romanticism, religion, daredevil - desperation, but a starting point for anybody." This was only played live during the British leg of the 1973 tour and was not revived until 1996. Love Reign O'er Me (Pete's Theme) (5'48) Produced by The Who and associate producer Glyn Johns. Recorded May 1972 at Olympic Studios, London with additional tracks recorded at The Kitchen June 8, 1973. Pete Townshend: "'Love Reign O'er Me' is similar to 'Drowned' in meaning. This refers to Meher Baba's one time comment that rain was a blessing from God; that thunder was God's Voice. It's another plea to drown, only this time in the rain. Jimmy goes through a suicide crisis. He surrenders to the inevitable, and you know, you know, when it's over and he goes back to town he'll be going through the same shit, being in the same terrible family situation and so on, but he's moved up a level. He's weak still, but there's a strength in that weakness. He's in danger of maturing." It was released as a single in the U.S. October 27, 1973 where it peaked at #76 in the Billboard charts and #54 in Cash Box. It was edited down to 3'11 with a different ending. The b-side was "Water." It was also released as a single in Belgium and the Netherlands where the b-side was "Is It In My Head." Live versions can be found on Who's Last, the Who Rocks America video, Join Together, The Who/Live featuring the rock opera Tommy video and the 30 Years Of Maximum R&B video. The Who è uno storico gruppo musicale rock inglese originario di Londra, considerato uno dei maggiori gruppi rock'n'roll di tutti i tempi. Le prime apparizioni dal vivo degli Who risalgono al 1964,con quella che è considerata la storica line up del gruppo: Pete Townshend (chitarrista e autore della maggior parte delle canzoni), Roger Daltrey (voce), John Entwistle (basso elettrico) e Keith Moon (batteria). Dopo un breve periodo da portabandiera del movimento Mod inglese, gli Who raggiungono il successo nel 1965, con l'uscita dell'album My Generation, il cui omonimo brano si dimostra essere un successo, nonché uno dei pezzi ancor oggi più conosciuti e rappresentativi della band. In A Quick One, pubblicato nel 1966, è possibile notare il progredire della ricerca musicale di Townshend verso la realizzazione di un' opera rock a carattere teatrale, che si concretizzerà poi in Tommy (1969) e nella più matura Quadrophenia (1973), nel cui film associato si fece notare un giovanissimo Sting. Del 1978 è anche un documentario sulla storia del gruppo dal titolo The Kids Are Alright (in Italia Uragano Who). Tra i principali protagonisti della Swinging London, l'influenza della loro musica si può notare nei contemporanei Beatles e Rolling Stones, un'onda lunga che va dai Led Zeppelin ai Sex Pistols, dagli U2 agli Oasis passando per i Pearl Jam. È particolarmente discusso l'inserimento degli Who all'interno del genere proto-punk, ovvero a quella derivazione del garage rock che a metà anni settanta porterà Ramones, Sex Pistols, The Clash ed altre band a creare il punk rock ed in particolare il punk 77. La distanza stilistica degli Who con altre band appartenenti al proto punk è evidente, tuttavia le innovazioni stilistiche apportate dagli Who al rock, soprattutto nell'uso della batteria fanno propendere alcune fonti a ritenere che la band appartenga al genere suddetto. Dopo la scomparsa di Keith Moon, morto nel 1978, e di John Entwistle, nel 2002, Townshend e Daltrey continuano a proporre dal vivo i loro brani più classici, accompagnati da Pino Palladino al basso e Zak Starkey (figlio di Richard, meglio conosciuto come Ringo Starr) alla batteria. Nel 2006, gli Who hanno pubblicato il loro primo disco registrato in studio da It's Hard del 1982, intitolato Endless Wire. Storia del gruppo Anni '60 Pete Townshend dal vivo, Toronto Maple Leaf Gardens, ottobre 1976 Nella formazione embrionale il gruppo si chiamava The Detours e suonava perlopiù pezzi rhythm and blues. Cambiarono il loro nome in The Who nel 1964, e con l'ingresso in formazione nello stesso anno di Keith Moon la formazione classica era al completo. Infatti per i seguenti 14 anni gli Who sarebbero stati: Roger Daltrey alla voce, Pete Townshend alla chitarra elettrica, John Entwistle al basso, e Keith Moon alla batteria. Per un breve lasso di tempo durante il 1964, sotto la direzione di Peter Meaden, cambiarono il nome in The High Numbers. In questo periodo pubblicarono un singolo che non riscosse alcun successo, Zoot Suit/I'm The Face. Visto il fallimento del lavoro, il gruppo licenziò Meaden e riprese il nome The Who. Il primo successo del gruppo fu il singolo I Can't Explain del 1965, seguito subito dopo da Anyway, Anyhow, Anywhere. Ma la band conobbe il vero successo dopo la pubblicazione del primo album, My Generation, (nella versione statunitense intitolato The Who Sings My Generation), avvenuta sempre nel 1965. L'album includeva molti classici della musica mod, come The Kids are Alright e la traccia omonima My Generation, che conteneva la famosa strofa "Hope I die before I get old" ("spero di morire prima di diventare vecchio"). Altri pezzi di successo del periodo furono il singolo del 1966 Substitute, I'm a Boy (sempre del 1966), Happy Jack (che trattava di un giovane con disturbi mentali) e Pictures of Lily del 1967, un tributo alla masturbazione, seguiti subito da I Can See For Miles e Magic Bus. Benché avessero già raggiunto una notevole fama grazie ai numerosi singoli di successo pubblicati, gli Who, o per meglio dire Pete Townshend, avevano degli obiettivi più ambiziosi, e durante gli anni la loro musica sarebbe diventata sempre più complessa, ed i testi sempre più provocatori. Townshend voleva inoltre trattare gli album degli Who come un lavoro unico, non come una serie di canzoni apparentemente non connesse tra di loro. Il primo segno di questa tendenza lo si avvertirà nell'album A Quick One del 1966, che include il medley A Quick One While He's Away, che successivamente verrà etichettato dallo stesso Townshend come una mini opera. A Quick One sarà seguito da The Who Sell Out del 1967, un concept album che suona come una stazione radio pirata, inclusi gli stacchi pubblicitari umoristici. Questo lavoro include un'altra mini opera rock, chiamata Rael, ed anche il miglior singolo statunitense del gruppo, I Can See For Miles. Gli Who erano noti al tempo anche per la loro abitudine di distruggere gli strumenti durante le esibizioni. Famosa fu quella del Monterey Pop Festival del 1967, fatto che si ripeterà anche nel programma Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, con dei risultati letteralmente esplosivi, dato che la batteria di Keith Moon esplose realmente sul palco, causando una temporanea perdita dell'udito a Pete Townshend. Il successo e le situazioni precedentemente descritte risulteranno nella prima intervista di Townshend al magazine inglese Rolling Stone. Townshend rivelò in questa intervista che il gruppo stava lavorando per la realizzazione di una opera rock completa. Questa si concretizzerà nell'album Tommy del 1969, la prima opera rock di successo mai registrata. Durante questo periodo gli insegnamenti spirituali di Meher Baba (cui sarà anche intitolata la canzone Baba O'Riley) iniziarono ad influenzare i testi di Townshend, ed infatti nell'album Tommy egli viene accreditato come "Avatar". Oltre al successo commerciale, Tommy ricevette dei riscontri molto positivi anche dalla critica. Life Magazine dichiarava che per la chiara potenza, l'invenzione e la brillantezza della performance, Tommy surclassa qualsiasi cosa sia mai uscita da uno studio di registrazione. Melody Maker dichiarava invece: sicuramente The Who sono adesso il gruppo di riferimento secondo il quale giudicare tutti gli altri. Gli Who eseguiranno buona parte di Tommy al festival di Woodstock del 1969. Questa performance, ed il susseguente film, lanceranno gli Who come superstar anche negli Stati Uniti d'America. Peraltro la loro perfomance fu interrotta da Abbie Hoffman, un attivista e politico statunitense, esponente della sinistra radicale degli Stati Uniti (New Left), cofondatore dello Youth International Party (Yippies) per fare un discorso di protesta contro l'imprigionamento di John Sinclair del Partito delle Pantere Bianche (White Panther Party). Il chitarrista degli Who Pete Townshend non prese bene l'interruzione dell'esibizione del suo gruppo, ebbe un breve ma duro scambio di parole con Hoffman ed infine lo colpì con la sua chitarra. Pete Townshend affermò successivamente di essere d'accordo con Hoffman riguardo l'imprigionamento di John Sinclair. Anni '70 Disegno sulla band Nel 1970 gli Who pubblicano Live at Leeds, che viene spesso indicato come "best live rock album" di sempre. Sempre nello stesso anno iniziarono a lavorare per la realizzazione di un nuovo disco in studio, che non verrà però portato a termine. Le motivazioni sono da ricondurre principalmente al fatto che Townshend dopo aver scritto il pezzo Pure and Easy, indicato come il perno intorno a cui avrebbe dovuto girare l'ambizioso concept album/progetto Lifehouse, distrasse se stesso e gli altri componenti del gruppo dal lavoro per il nuovo album in studio. Lifehouse non fu mai completato nella forma in cui fu progettato (fu invece adattato per la trasmissione via radio, cosa che avvenne alla BBC nel 2000, e molto del materiale fu successivamente pubblicato da Townshend in un album composto da 6 CD e fruibile direttamente attraverso il sito ufficiale dello stesso Townshend). Nel marzo del 1971 il gruppo iniziò le registrazioni del materiale disponibile di Lifehouse con Kit Lambert a New York, registrazioni che vennero successivamente continuate con Glyn Johns ad aprile. Il materiale selezionato andrà a formare l'album Who's Next, che diverrà l'album di maggior successo sia di critica che di pubblico, ma che di fatto farà terminare il progetto Lifehouse. Altre tracce di Lifehouse si troveranno come singoli non compresi in album, e in altri lavori durante i seguenti anni, come in Odds & Sods, e anche nel disco solista di Townshend Who Came First. Who's Next diventerà uno dei primi album rock di successo a presentare l'utilizzo massiccio dei sintetizzatori. Il lavoro raggiunse la posizione 4 nelle classifiche pop statunitensi e la prima posizione in quelle inglesi. Il singolo Won't Get Fooled Again diverrà il primo singolo di successo contenente il suono dei sintetizzatori. Who's Next fu seguito nel 1973 da Quadrophenia, disco che si avvicina più a un monologo che a un'opera rock (troviamo infatti al suo interno solo poche parti cantate da altri elementi); nonostante ciò è forse l'album in assoluto più famoso della band dopo Tommy. Il filo conduttore di Quadrophenia è la storia di un adolescente di nome Jimmy, riguardante la sua ricerca d'identità e i connessi problemi mentali, i quali vengono inseriti nel contesto della lotta tra Mods e Rockers dei primi anni sessanta in Inghilterra, in particolar modo delle lotte tra le due fazioni di Brighton. Il disco riprende circa 5 giorni della vita del ragazzo, fino a che, disperato perché i suoi tentativi di costruirsi una vita sociale sono vani, viene cacciato di casa dai genitori quando essi scoprono che il figlio conservava del blues (una sorta di droga sconosciuta). Successivamente iniziano le sue disavventure che termineranno in modo tragico. Il lavoro raggiunse la 2^ posizione nella classifica statunitense di Billboard. Durante il tour promozionale del disco negli Stati Uniti, nel corso del concerto del 20 novembre 1973 a San Francisco, Keith Moon collassò per due volte sul palco a causa di un'overdose di tranquillante per cavalli, e fu sostituito per gli ultimi due pezzi dello show da un diciannovenne del pubblico, Scott Halpin. Gli ultimi dischi del gruppo contenevano al loro interno diversi contenuti incentrati sulle vicende personali di Townshend, e questa sarebbe stata una caratteristica anche negli album solisti del chitarrista, come in Empty Glass. Anche l'album del 1975, The Who by Numbers, contiene molti pezzi dai toni introspettivi, compreso il singolo Squeeze Box. Nello stesso anno venne realizzata la versione cinematografica dell'album Tommy, diretta da Ken Russell, avente come protagonista Roger Daltrey, e che valse a Pete Townshend una nomination all'Academy Award come "Best Original Score". Nel 1976 gli Who suonarono al Charlton Athletic Football Ground, concerto che fu inserito per oltre un decennio nel Guinness dei primati come "concerto dal volume più alto di sempre". Nel 1978 il gruppo pubblicò Who Are You, caratterizzato da un suono più orientato alle radio. L'album conteneva comunque una canzone da una rock opera incompleta di John Entwistle. Purtroppo la pubblicazione del lavoro fu oscurata dalla morte del batterista Keith Moon, avvenuta improvvisamente nel sonno a causa di una overdose di farmaci, poche ore dopo un party organizzato da Paul McCartney. Kenney Jones, ex The Small Faces e The Faces, si unì al gruppo in sostituzione di Moon. Nel 1979 gli Who ritornarono ad esibirsi con diversi concerti al Rainbow Theatre di Londra, al Cannes Film Festival in Francia, ed al Madison Square Garden di New York. Nell'autunno dello stesso anno il gruppo acconsentì ad effettuare un mini tour degli Stati Uniti. Purtroppo la serie di concerti venne funestata da una tragedia avvenuta il 3 dicembre 1979 a Cincinnati, Ohio. Una tribuna del Riverfront Coliseum crollò prima dell'inizio del concerto, causando la morte di undici persone del pubblico. Il gruppo venne avvertito del fatto solo a concerto concluso, dato che le autorità preventivarono molti più problemi nel caso il concerto venisse cancellato. I componenti del gruppo rimasero molto colpiti da quella notizia. Sempre nel 1979 venne realizzato un documentario chiamato The Kids Are Alright e una versione cinematografica di Quadrophenia, film che riscosse un grosso successo in Inghilterra. Il 17 dicembre del 1979 gli Who divennero il terzo gruppo, dopo Beatles e The Band, ad essere ospitati sulla copertina di Time Magazine. L'articolo scritto da Jay Cocks, trattava in maniera positiva i componenti del gruppo e la loro posizione nella musica rock. Anni '80 Simon Townshend e Roger Daltrey nel 2006 Gli Who avrebbero realizzato altri due album in studio con Jones come batterista, e precisamente Face Dances nel 1981 e It's Hard nel 1982. La perdita di Keith Moon costituì un duro colpo per la parte ritmica del gruppo. I due album registrati con Jones infatti avrebbero impresso una svolta decisa verso il pop. Nonostante buoni riscontri di vendita, con la rivista Rolling Stone che attribuì addirittura cinque stelle a It's Hard, molti fan non avrebbero apprezzato il nuovo sound del gruppo. Dopo la pubblicazione di It's Hard il gruppo partì per la tournée di addio. L'evento venne organizzato dopo che Townshend dichiarò il suo alcolismo e la sua successiva disintossicazione. L'artista infatti affermò che avrebbe voluto realizzare un ultimo tour con la band prima che divenisse un gruppo dedito solo a lavori di studio. La richiesta di biglietti, dopo tali dichiarazioni, diventò naturalmente frenetica. Fu il più lungo tour dell'anno, che avrebbe fatto registrare il tutto esaurito in numerosi stadi e arene del nord America. Dopo il completamento del tour in nord America nel dicembre 1982, Townshend passò parte del 1983 nel tentativo di scrivere materiale per l'ennesimo album in studio del gruppo, previsto dal contratto firmato con la Warner Bros. nel 1980. Verso la fine del 1983, tuttavia, Townshend dichiarò di non essere in grado di produrre il materiale per il nuovo album, e in una dichiarazione pubblica del dicembre 1983 annunciò la sua decisione di lasciare il gruppo. Townshend si concentrò allora sul suo lavoro da solista, e pubblicò gli album White City: A Novel, The Iron Man: A Musical (che ospita apparizioni di Daltrey ed Entwistle, nonché due canzoni accreditate agli Who) e Psychoderelict, precursore del lavoro per la radio Lifehouse, una sorta di opera rock sci-fi. Il 13 luglio 1985, i componenti degli Who incluso Kenney Jones si riformarono per esibirsi al Live Aid allo stadio di Wembley.[29] Il gruppo eseguì My Generation, Pinball Wizard, Love Reign O'er Me, e Won't Get Fooled Again. Per un problema tecnico della BBC presentatosi all'inizio di My Generation, la maggior parte del pezzo non verrà ascoltato dai telespettatori. Nel 1988 il gruppo fu insignito dalla British Phonographic Industry del Lifetime Achievement Award. Il gruppo suonò un breve set di pezzi durante la cerimonia di consegna del premio. Questa sarà anche l'ultima esibizione di Kenney Jones con gli Who. Il loro reunion tour più noto fu quello del 1989, incentrato principalmente su Tommy. Durante questo tour il ruolo di batterista verrà ricoperto da Simon Phillips, collaboratore di vecchia data di Townshend. Anche in questo caso la richiesta di biglietti fu notevole, e portò un'altra volta al tutto esaurito negli stadi del nord America, incluse quattro serate di seguito al Giants Stadium. In tutto vennero venduti 2 milioni di biglietti. Anni '90 Roger Daltrey e Pete Townshend (qui con Jon Carin, a destra in basso nella foto) sono fra i membri storici del gruppo degli Who Nel 1990, il primo anno in cui potessero essere proposti, gli Who vennero nominati per l'inserimento nella Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Gli Who vennero descritti come i primi candidati ad aspirare al titolo di "World's Greatest Rock Band". Solo i Beatles ed i Rolling Stones ricevettero la stessa presentazione alla Rock Hall. Nel 1991 il gruppo registrò una cover del pezzo di Elton John Saturday Night's Alright For Fighting per un album tributo. Questa fu anche l'ultima incisione in studio di John Entwistle con gli Who. Pete Townshend andò in tour nel 1993 per promuovere il suo album Psychoderelict, e Entwistle partecipò ad una serata suonando in molti pezzi insieme a Townshend. Nel 1994 si diffuse la notizia che gli Who avrebbero fatto un tour per il loro trentesimo anniversario dalla fondazione del gruppo. Poi il tour non si fece, ma Roger Daltrey compì 50 anni e celebrò l'evento con due concerti alla Carnegie Hall. Queste esibizioni inclusero come ospiti sia John Entwistle che Pete Townshend, anche se i tre non suonarono insieme. Daltrey andò in tour lo stesso anno con l'accompagnamento di un'orchestra e con Entwistle come ospite speciale. La formazione per questo tour comprendeva anche John "Rabbit" Bundrick alle tastiere, Zak Starkey alla batteria e Simon Townshend alla chitarra in sostituzione del fratello Pete. Sebbene Pete Townshend diede il consenso a Daltrey di chiamare questo gruppo The Who, Daltrey non accettò. Il tour, chiamato Daltrey Sings Townshend, non ebbe comunque il successo sperato. Nel 1996 fu chiesto a Townshend di riformare il gruppo per esibirsi ad un concerto ad Hyde Park. Egli contattò quindi Entwistle e Daltrey, che accettarono la proposta. L'idea di Townshend consisteva nell'esecuzione di Quadrophenia in chiave acustica, con l'utilizzo di parti del film da proiettare sugli schermi. Al gruppo si unì Zak Starkey alla batteria (benché fosse inizialmente riluttante all'idea), Bundrick alle tastiere e Simon Townshend alla seconda chitarra. Venne inoltre incluso Jon Carin come tastierista aggiunto, una sezione fiati, diversi coristi, e molti ospiti furono invitati a partecipare alla performance (tra gli altri David Gilmour, Ade Edmondson, il giornalista Trevor McDonald e Gary Glitter (che colpì incidentalmente Daltrey ad un occhio con l'asta di un microfono proprio il giorno prima del concerto). L'intera rappresentazione fu narrata da Phil Daniels che impersonò Jimmy, il mod protagonista della storia. Nonostante qualche difficoltà tecnica, lo spettacolo ebbe un grosso successo, tanto da essere replicato per sei serate consecutive (che registrarono il tutto esaurito) al Madison Square Garden di New York. Queste esibizioni non verranno comunque eseguite sotto il nome The Who. Il successo di queste esibizioni portò ad un tour negli Stati Uniti e in Europa. Lo show venne riadattato per il tour ed includeva molti classici degli Who come bis. Il tour venne eseguito sotto il nome dei componenti del gruppo, e a volte sotto il nome The Who, probabilmente per aiutare la vendita dei biglietti. Dopo il successo del tour, gli Who si sciolsero per l'ennesima volta. Townshend si dedicò ad esibizioni principalmente in acustico, Entwistle si dedicò ad esibirsi con il suo gruppo, The John Entwistle Band, e Daltrey andò in tour con The British Rock Symphony eseguendo brani degli Who ed altri pezzi classici del rock accompagnato da un'orchestra. Verso la fine del 1999, gli Who si riunirono in formazione a cinque con Bundrick e Starkey, e si esibirono per diversi concerti di beneficenza in piccoli locali. Molti dei pezzi eseguiti in questo periodo erano estratti da Who's Next ed includevano anche pezzi non eseguiti da oltre 30 anni. 2000-presente John Entwistle, Toronto Maple Leaf Gardens, ottobre 1976 Pete Townshend durante un concerto Il successo delle esibizioni del 1999 portarono allo svolgimento di un tour negli Stati Uniti nell'estate del 2000, e nel novembre dello stesso anno ad un tour in Inghilterra. Il tour terminò con un concerto per beneficenza alla Royal Albert Hall in favore della fondazione per la ricerca sul cancro nei giovani. All'esibizione (che venne poi realizzata su CD e DVD) parteciparono anche altri artisti. Grazie alle numerose recensioni positive ricevute, i tre componenti rimanenti degli Who discussero della possibilità di entrare in studio per la registrazione di un nuovo album. Nell'ottobre 2001 ci fu l'esibizione al Concerto per New York City, e durante lo stesso anno ricevettero il Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Prima dell'inizio del tour dell'estate del 2002, il bassista John Entwistle venne trovato morto nella sua stanza all'Hard Rock Hotel di Las Vegas, Nevada. L'autopsia rivelò che benché non avesse subito un overdose, una modesta quantità di cocaina venne trovata nel suo organismo e questo contribuì al fatale attacco di cuore che Entwistle ebbe. Questo fu in pratica il risultato di anni di uso regolare di cocaina, ipertensione, e gli anni passati a fumare sigarette. Dopo un breve ritardo, il tour iniziò con Pino Palladino in sostituzione di John Entwistle. Molti concerti del tour vennero poi realizzati ufficialmente su CD per la Encore Series 2002. Prima dell'inizio del tour vennero provati dei nuovi pezzi (Real Good Looking Boy e Certified Rose), come anche vecchi classici come I Can't See for Miles, ma a causa della morte di Entwistle non vennero eseguiti. Nel settembre 2002 il periodico Q Magazine inserì gli Who nella lista dei "50 gruppi da vedere prima di morire" ("50 Bands to See Before You Die"). Nel 2004 gli Who registrarono due nuove canzoni (Old Red Wine e Real Good Looking Boy, con al basso Pino Palladino nella prima e Greg Lake nella seconda), che andarono a far parte della raccolta di singoli The Who: Then and Now. Dopo la pubblicazione di questa raccolta, il gruppo fece una mini tournée mondiale di 18 date, toccando il Giappone, l'Australia, l'Inghilterra e gli Stati Uniti. Anche in questo caso i concerti vennero pubblicati su CD come parte delle Encore Series 2004. Il gruppo fece anche da headliner al festival dell'isola di Wight, e il periodico Rolling Stone li inserì alla posizione 29 della lista dei 100 migliori gruppi di sempre (the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time). Gli Who annunciarono quindi di voler pubblicare nella primavera del 2005 un nuovo album da studio, il primo da 23 anni a questa parte (album che ebbe il titolo provvisorio di "WHO2"). Nel marzo del 2005, il sito web di Pete Townshend annunciò che la pubblicazione dell'album era stata rinviata a data da definirsi, e che i programmati tour in Inghilterra e Stati Uniti erano da considerarsi anch'essi annullati. Le cause di questi rinvii furono in parte dovute alla lentezza nella registrazione del nuovo materiale, ed in parte al coinvolgimento di Zak Starkey nel tour degli Oasis. Nel luglio del 2005 il gruppo si esibì al Live 8 dal palco di Londra, eseguendo Who Are You e Won't Get Fooled Again, con alla batteria Steve White (batterista di Paul Weller e fratello maggiore dell'ex batterista degli Oasis Alan White) e al basso Damon Minchella (bassista negli Ocean Colour Scene) che sostituì Pino Palladino (in tour in sud America con Jeff Beck). Sempre nel 2005 il gruppo viene inserito nella UK Music Hall of Fame. Roger Daltrey eseguì un pezzo commissionato per l'occasione, Highbury Highs, alla cerimonia di addio allo stadio di Highbury dopo l'ultima partita dell'Arsenal tenutasi in quello stadio contro il Wigan il 7 maggio 2006. Il 3 ottobre 2006, tramite il portale iTunes vennero pubblicati due singoli prima della pubblicazione del nuovo album Endless Wire. I pezzi hanno il titolo di Tea & Theatre e It's Not Enough. Endless Wire verrà pubblicato il 30 ottobre 2006, e sarà il primo album in studio del gruppo dopo It's Hard del 1982. Durante il 2006 vincono il Freddy Mercury Lifetime Achievement ai Live Music Award. Il 6 novembre 2007 verranno pubblicati due DVD, Amazing Journey: The Story of the Who e Amazing Journey: Six Quick Ones. Il primo DVD comprende nuove interviste ai componenti sulla storia del gruppo e rari spezzoni di esibizioni dal vivo, mentre il secondo traccia il profilo individuale dei componenti e include il filmato di registrazione del pezzo del 2003 Real Good Looking Boy. La loro influenza Gli Who sono stati tra i gruppi più influenti della musica rock. Con il loro approccio progressivo nella scrittura degli album ed i loro concerti emozionanti si sono confrontati molti artisti. Lo stile hard rock che hanno preso dalla scena musicale inglese è stato in grado di aprire il palcoscenico per gruppi come i Led Zeppelin e The Clash. I The Jam, esponenti del punk 77 e del Mod Revival, uno dei gruppi maggiormente influenzati dagli Who. Con il loro periodo iniziale nel Mod, gli Who hanno inizialmente favorito la nascita del Mod Revival influenzando molto gruppi come i The Jam; in seguito ciò ha ispirato molti, se non tutti, i maggiori gruppi dell'ondata Britpop di metà degli anni '90 britannici. Gruppi come i Blur, gli Oasis, gli Stereophonics e gli Ash hanno avuto una grande fonte d'ispirazione nei lavori dei quattro di Londra, specialmente nell'ideale della Cool Britannia, che esprimeva un orgoglio britannico, espresso da molti artisti degli anni '90 ed associato ai primi anni del governo New Labour di Tony Blair. Gli Who sono stati anche chiamati The Godfathers of Punk (i Padrini del Punk) in molte pubblicazioni, così come anche nel film di Spike Lee Summer of Sam. Parte della nascita del movimento punk e del punk rock si deve alla loro aggressività, violenza ed al loro atteggiamento arrogante sul palco. Gli MC5, i Ramones, i Sex Pistols, i Clash, i Generation X, i Green Day, e molte altre band punk e proto-punk hanno subito fortemente il loro ascendente. Proprio quest'ultimo gruppo non ha mai fatto mistero di ammirare moltissimo la band di Townshend&co, tanto che nel suo secondo album Kerplunk! inserirono una cover di My Generation. Al gruppo è attribuita la realizzazione di un'opera rock e di uno dei primi concept album di rilievo. Seguendo le orme di Tommy, si sono realizzati, tra gli altri, The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust di David Bowie, The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway dei Genesis, Thick as a Brick dei Jethro Tull e The Wall dei Pink Floyd. Recentemente, l'idea è stata adottata dai Flaming Lips in Yoshimi Battles the Pink Robots e dai Green Day con American Idiot. Nel 1967 Pete Townshend ha coniato la frase power pop per descrivere il suono dei singoli degli Who degli anni '60. Gli artisti principali del power pop degli anni '70, dai Raspberries ai Cheap Trick, hanno preso molta della loro ispirazione dagli Who. La loro influenza può essere anche vista nel loro utilizzo innovativo dei sintetizzatori nella musica rock con Who's Next, dove lo strumento veniva utilizzato cospicuamente, in particolare nel singolo Won't Get Fooled Again, che divenne il primo singolo ad essere spinto da una traccia sintetizzata. My Generation è probabilmente la canzone del gruppo a contare il maggior numero di cover. L'hanno cantata gli Iron Maiden, gli Oasis, i Pearl Jam, Patti Smith, i Green Day, i McFly ed Hilary Duff. Gli Oasis l'hanno utilizzata come traccia conclusiva nel tour del 2005. I The Zimmers, conosciuti come la più vecchia rock band, ne hanno realizzato una versione scherzosa ed utilizzata come loro primo singolo, che sarebbe poi divenuto una hit nel Regno Unito. David Bowie ha fatto cover di I Can't Explain, Pictures of Lily ed Anyway, Anyhow, Anywhere. I Sex Pistols hanno cantato Substitute nei loro primi concerti. I Clash hanno utilizzato il riff di I Can't Explain in Clash City Rockers e Guns on the Roof. I Pearl Jam hanno suonato Baba O'Riley e The Kids are Alright nei tour degli anni '90 e '00. Hanno suonato anche altre canzoni degli Who comeLeaving Here, Blue, Red, & Grey, Naked Eye e Love, Reign O'er Me, di cui anche Graziano Romani ha eseguito una cover nel 2002, inclusa poi nell'album Lost And Found: Songs For The Rocking Chairs. Il gruppo tedesco Scorpions ha realizzato una cover di I Can't Explain, mentre la band Shock rock W.A.S.P. ha cantato The Real Me. I Van Halen hanno suonato Won't Get Fooled Again nell'album live del 1993 Live: Right Here, Right Now, definendola esplicitamente come un tributo agli Who, e, nel 1995, i Phish hanno eseguito Quadrophenia per il loro secondo concerto annuale di Halloween, nel quale per tradizione eseguono l'album di un altro gruppo per intero. L'esibizione è stata poi pubblicata nel disco dal titolo Live Phish Volume 14. Anche i Grateful Dead hanno suonato Baba O'Riley all'inizio degli anni '90, così come i Nirvana. I Rush hanno pubblicato una versione di The Seeker nell'EP del 2004 Feedback e suonata nel tour R30 dello stesso anno. I Limp Bizkit hanno pubblicato una cover di Behind Blue Eyes mixata con la canzone dei The Verve Bittersweet Symphony nell'album del 2004 Results May Vary. Pinball Wizard è diventata un classico nei concerti di Elton John, che l'aveva interpretata nella versione cinematografica di Tommy del 1975, e i McFly l'hanno pubblicata come B-side del singolo dello stesso anno I'll Be Ok e suonata anche nel loro tour del 2005. Fish (ex Marillion) ha cantato The Seeker nel periodo di Songs from the Mirror. Molti altri artisti, da Buddy Rich a Richard Thompson, dagli U2 a Petra Haden (che ha cantato The Who Sell Out nella sua interezza), hanno realizzato cover degli Who. La musica degli Who è ancora eseguita in pubblico da molte tribute band, come The Wholigans, Who's Next USA, Bargain, The Relay e The Ohm, negli Stati Uniti, Who's Next UK, Who's Who UK e The Whodlums nel Regno Unito,I Sostituti in Italia. La canzone Eminence Front appare nella colonna sonora del videogame Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. La serie televisiva CSI: Crime Scene Investigation ha per colonna sonora alcune canzoni degli Who: Who Are You (CSI: Crime Scene Investigation), We Won't Get Fooled Again (CSI: Miami), Baba O'Riley (CSI: New York). Michael Moore ha chiesto a Pete Townshend l'utilizzo di Won't Get Fooled Again per il suo documentario Fahrenheit 9/11, utilizzo che gli è stato negato, in quanto il cantante lo trova "borioso" e perché favorevole alla guerra in Iraq, a differenza del regista.[45][46] Tuttavia, va aggiunto che in tempi successivi, Townshend ha dichiarato che, sebbene innegabilmente era stato favorevole all'intervento militare, ora, "come milioni di altre persone, non sono più così sicuro che fosse la scelta giusta" ("like millions of others, I am less sure we did the right thing") Timeline componenti Album in studio Data di pubblicazione Titolo Etichetta Posizione Billboard Pop Albums Posizione Billboard Top 200 Riconoscimenti per vendite 1965 My Generation (la versione USA venne intitolata The Who Sings My Generation) Brunswick Records 1966 A Quick One Reaction Records 185 1967 The Who Sell Out Track, Polydor Records,Decca Records,MCA Records 48 1969 Tommy Track Records, Polydor Records 4 Oro, Platino, 2xMulti Platino 1971 Who's Next Decca Records 4 Oro, Platino, 3xMulti Platino 1973 Quadrophenia Track Records, Polydor Records, MCA Records 2 Oro, Platino 1975 The Who by Numbers Polydor Records, MCA Records 8 Oro 1978 Who Are You Polydor Records, MCA Records 2 Oro, Platino, 2xMulti Platino 1981 Face Dances Polydor Records, Warner Bros. 4 Oro, Platino 1982 It's Hard Polydor Records, Warner Bros. 8 Oro 2006 Endless Wire Universal Republic, Polydor Records 7 Una volta definito l'acquisto, paga immediatamente con la tua carta di credito tramite PayPal! Sottogenere: opera rock, Genere: Rock-n-Roll, Velocità: 33 giri, Dimensione: LP (12 pollici), Condizioni: Usato

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